Best Practices

Git Repository

We’re using two branches for development, main and develop.

  • main is the branch that production scenarios are deployed from. This branch is protected and can be merged to it only through a merge request.

  • develop is the branch used for running scenarios in test environment, or during their development.

Before deploying scenarios into production we advice asking your colleagues to review your code. This can be done by creating a merge request from develop to main branch.

We setup a GitLab CI pipeline that runs with every commit. It runs basic checks, such as syntax formatting, linting, etc. We use tools as black, pycln, isort, flake8, pylint and pre-commit to ensure that our code is formatted correctly and follows our best practices.

You can run these checks also locally by running:

$ pre-commit run --all-files

Aiviro Commands

Get, See, Wait-For

The distinction between the get(), see() and wait_for() commands lies in their behavior when searching for elements.

  • Get returns the desired element or None if it’s not found, making it suitable when you need to make a decision.

  • On the other hand, See returns the desired element or raises a CheckCommandError if it’s not found, making it ideal for scenarios where obtaining the element is critical, ensuring a 100% success rate.

  • Wait-For waits for the element to appear for a given amount of time before raising a SearchObjectError.

# using get command
if r.get(aiviro.Text("Save ?"), ignore_exception=True):"Yes"))

# using see command

# using wait-for command
if r.wait_for(
    aiviro.Text("Select year period"),
    ignore_timeout_exception=True,  # ignores raising SearchObjectError
    current_year ="%Y")

Working area & Masks

The distinction between using a working area and applying masks is essential.

A working area defines a designated region for the user’s interactions, ensuring that subsequent commands operate within this specified area. This limitation enhances the precision and clarity of element identification, reducing potential confusion with similarly named elements.

On the other hand, masks involve overlaying a screen with a cover, selectively blocking out specific sections. Masks are particularly valuable when there’s a need to disregard certain screen portions, allowing the user to focus solely on the relevant elements, and effectively excluding distractions.

Check out the set_working_area() and add_mask() methods for more information.


For detailed information about what type of logs are available and how to use them, see Logging section.

In case you wish to log additional information, you can simply use Python logging module.

import aiviro
import logging

if __name__ == "__main__":
    # name of the logger has to start with "aiviro."
    my_logger = logging.getLogger("aiviro.my_logger")"Starting scenario")

    r = aiviro.create_web_robot()

        r.wait_for(aiviro.Text("Hello World"))
    except aiviro.SearchObjectError:
        my_logger.exception("Hello World not found")
        r.close()"Ending scenario")

Static Robot

When something is not recognized correctly in a production scenario, it can be challenging to rectify. In such cases, we can utilize the StaticRobot to verify the correct recognition of specific elements within an image.

See the example below, where we will use an image from the logs to identify the desired object.

import aiviro
from aiviro.utils import file_utils

if __name__ == '__main__':
    img = file_utils.load_image("")

    r = aiviro.create_static_robot()
    boxes = r.get(aiviro.Text("Object to find"))

Production vs Testing

When defining flows, we set the environment variable AIVIRO_DEBUG_KEY, which determines whether the scenario is executed in a testing or production environment.

  • AIVIRO_DEBUG_VALUE == 1 - signifies the testing environment.

  • AIVIRO_DEBUG_VALUE == 0 - designates the production environment.

See the example below, where we define different values for the same variables, depending on the environment.

from aiviro import AIVIRO_DEBUG_VALUE

INVOICE_FOLDER = "C:\\Documents" if AIVIRO_DEBUG_VALUE else "Z:\\Prijate faktury"
DB_CATEGORY = "Cvicne DB" if AIVIRO_DEBUG_VALUE else "Produkcni DB"
DB_NAME = "Skoleni" if AIVIRO_DEBUG_VALUE else "Ostra"

Clean code

Re-using elements

There is a big difference between passing Search Objects as parameters and passing Area or BoundBox as parameters.

  • Search Objects defines a way to search for an element, but it doesn’t contain any information about the element itself.

  • Bound Boxes are the result of a search, and they contain information as element’s coordinates, text, etc.

import aiviro

# simple element
box = r.get(aiviro.Button("OK"))
if box:

# element with parameters
element = aiviro.OnTheRight(
    aiviro.Text("Projects", aiviro.text_find_methods.EQUAL),
    aiviro.Text("Dashboards", aiviro.text_find_methods.EQUAL),
box = r.wait_for(element)
# OR

# several elements
elements = [
    aiviro.Input("App Title"),
r.wait_for(*elements, timeout=15)

Using OR

When using OR, the first element that is found is returned, see Or for more information.

import aiviro

# NOT preferred way to do it
    pass_input = r.wait_for(aiviro.Input("Heslo"))
except aiviro.SearchObjectError:
    pass_input = r.wait_for(aiviro.Input("Heslc"))

# preferred way to do it, using OR
password_input = r.wait_for(

# you can access or_index variable to see which element was found
1  # 'Heslc' was found

Split the code

Split the code into logical sections or methods. It’s more readable and easier to maintain.

import aiviro

# NOT preferred way to do it
r.right_click(aiviro.Icon("Helios", element_index=-1))
run_as_admin = r.wait_for(aiviro.Text("Run as administrator"))
r.wait_for(aiviro.Text("User Account Control"))
r.clear_and_type(aiviro.Input("User name"), "user-name")
r.clear_and_type(aiviro.Input("Password"), "password")"Yes"))
with r.set_working_area_by_checkpoint("desktop"):

# preferred way to do it
checkpoint_name = "desktop"

r.right_click(aiviro.Icon("Helios", element_index=-1))
run_as_admin = r.wait_for(aiviro.Text("Run as administrator"))
r.wait_for(aiviro.Text("User Account Control"))

r.clear_and_type(aiviro.Input("User name"), "user-name")
r.clear_and_type(aiviro.Input("Password"), "password")"Yes"))

with r.set_working_area_by_checkpoint(checkpoint_name):


Hard-coded values

The practice of hard-coding values into a script, especially when the same value is used in multiple places, is not a recommended approach. This is because when the value needs to be changed, it must be updated at all occurrences, which is prone to oversight.

A better practice is to define the value as a constant at the beginning of the script or block and then use this constant throughout.

# discouraged approach
for i in range(10):
    print(f"Processing [{i}/10]")

# recommended approach
N_TIMES = 10
for i in range(N_TIMES):
    print(f"Processing [{i}/{N_TIMES}]")


Our goal is to define constants that have a common association. For instance, let’s consider a folder structure in an email directory with a top-level folder named Invoices which further contains two subfolders, processed and manual.

# discouraged approach
INVOICES_MANUAL = "INBOX.Invoices.manual"
INVOICES_PROCESSED = "INBOX.Invoices.processed"

# recommended approach
class EmailFolders:
    POSTFIX_MANUAL = "manual"
    POSTFIX_PROCESSED = "processed"

    INVOICES = "INBOX.Invoices"

    TESTING = "INBOX.Testing"

Exception handling

When handling exceptions, it’s important to be as specific as possible. This is because if a general exception is used, it can be difficult to determine the cause of the error.

# discouraged approach
except Exception:
    print("Something went wrong")

# recommended approach
except aiviro.SearchObjectError:
    print("Button OK not found")
    # raise different exceptions
except aiviro.SearchObjectError:
    # handle SearchObjectError
except (ValueError, KeyError):
    # handle ValueError and KeyError
except RuntimeError:
    # handle RuntimeError

If-else statement

It is advisable to avoid using the else keyword when not necessary, as it can make the code cleaner and more concise.

# discouraged approach
if condition:
    return result
    return None

# recommended approach
if condition:
    return result
return None

Code Indentation

It’s recommended to aim for reduced indentation levels to enhance code readability.

# discouraged approach
if condition:
   calc = get_value()
   if calc > 42:
       calc2 = get_value2()
       if calc2 == 100:
           return "success"
           return "calc2 failed"
       return "calc1 failed:"
return None

# recommended approach
if not condition:
    return None

calc = get_value()
if calc <= 42:
    return "calc1 failed"

calc2 = get_value2()
if calc2 != 100:
    return "calc2 failed"

return "success"

Floating point

When working with floating-point numbers, it’s recommended to use the decimal module to avoid rounding errors.

from decimal import Decimal

a = Decimal(1)  # integer
b = Decimal(1.2)  # float
c = Decimal((0, (1, 2), -1))  # piecewise float = sign, digits, exponent ->   +  12 * 10^-1
d = Decimal("1")  # integer as a string
e = Decimal("1.2")  # float as a string

When working with decimal numbers, it’s recommended to always create a Decimal object from a string because it preserves the value as intended. When you specify a Decimal from an integer or a float, the entire binary representation of the number is copied.

from decimal import Decimal

>>> Decimal(1.1)  # float
>>> Decimal("1.1")  # string

>>> Decimal(0.1 + 0.2)
>>> Decimal(0.1) + Decimal(0.2)
>>> Decimal("0.1") + Decimal("0.2")

In the example below, we can see how to round number to two decimal places using standard rounding, rounding down (floor) and rounding up (ceiling).

from decimal import Decimal, ROUND_UP, ROUND_DOWN

# Standard rounding (nearest number rounding)
>>> Decimal("1.455").quantize(Decimal("0.01"))
>>> Decimal("1.454").quantize(Decimal("1e-2"))

# Round down (floor)
>>> Decimal("1.455").quantize(Decimal("0.01"), ROUND_DOWN)
>>> Decimal("1.454").quantize(Decimal("1e-2"), ROUND_DOWN)

# Round up (ceiling)
>>> Decimal("1.455").quantize(Decimal("0.01"), ROUND_UP)
>>> Decimal("1.454").quantize(Decimal("1e-2"), ROUND_UP)